This column is located at the Polish Consulate Square and it is relatively recent, having been erected in November 2002. It’s known as Kolumna Orła Białego, or the Column of the White Eagle, and was designed by Urszula and Ryszard Szmytowie.
There are screens which feature, I think, coats of arms from throughout the history of the country, although my lack of knowledge means I’m struggling to intrepret what all of these dates represent.
The three panels here are 1295 (Przemysł II becomes King of Poland, the first coronation of a Polish leader in over 200 years), 1538 (perhaps the Treaty of Nagyvárad, although I’m not sure quite how that’s relevant) and 1669-1696 (rule of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki and John III Sobieski)
The three panels here are 1764-1795 (the reign of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last Monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth), 1916 (the Kingdom of Poland is proclaimed) and 1919-1927 (I have no idea why these specific dates have been used).
There are two panels here, the first is 1945-1990 (the communist period in Poland) and 1990 (the first directly elected Polish President, Lech Wałęsa).